Cardiovascular diseases


Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (heart disease) refers to a group of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels of your body



  • Cardiovascular disease (heart disease) refers to a group of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels of your body



  • Atherosclerosis (plaque build up in the arteries)
  • Scarring of the heart muscle,
  • Genetic problems or
  • Medications can cause arrhythmias.
  • Aging
  • Infections



  • Pounding or racing heart (palpitations).
  • Chest pain.
  • Sweating.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Dizziness.
  • Tiredness.
  • Heart Murmur



  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • High cholesterol (hyperlipidemia)
  • Tobacco use.
  • Diabetes.
  • Family history of heart disease.
  • Sedentary lifestyle or obesity.
  • Diet high in sodium, sugar and fat.
  • Overuse of alcohol.
  • Preeclampsia or toxemia.
  • Gestational diabetes.
  • Chronic inflammatory or autoimmune conditions
  • Chronic clinic disease



  • Blood test
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Ambulatory monitoring
  • Echocardiogram
  • Cardiac CT
  • MRI
  • Cardiac catheterization



  • Lifestyle changes: Examples include making changes to your diet, increasing your aerobic activity and quitting smoking.
  • Medications: 
  • Procedures or surgeries 
  • Cardiac rehabilitation 
  • Active surveillance



  • Avoiding all tobacco products.
  • Managing other health conditions, such as diabetes, high cholesterol or high blood pressure.
  • Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Eating a diet low in saturated fat and sodium.
  • Exercising at least 30 to 60 minutes per day on most days.
  • Reducing and managing stress.
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